Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Opposition gives definitionÃ¢â¬ said Heraclitus in 6th century BC (Graham). If that was true, in 21st century people are given Ã¢â¬Å"definitionÃ¢â¬ by the usage of the prefix Ã¢â¬Å"anti-Ã¢â¬Å". Therefore, an Ã¢â¬Å"anti-warÃ¢â¬ novel is one, which opposes any form of aggressive competition. Regeneration by Pat Barker is one of the plentiful novels inspired by the atrocious events of the First World War. BarkerÃ¢â¬â¢s book does not focus on depicting combats and stratagems. On the contrary, it portrays in detail the mental and physical consequences of the war. Regeneration is an Ã¢â¬Å"anti-warÃ¢â¬ novel, which touches upon the appalling harm done by warfare and the following recovery process. Barker condemns war and her negative attitude is displayed by her complex, credible characters and hard emphasis on consequences. Description of both mental and physical war injuries tags every chapter of the novel, thus provoking the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s sympathy. Barker aims to create a picture of the real circumstances during that period. Both by imaginary and real characters she succeeds in creating the solemn and discouraging mood in Craiglockheart. The introduction of the patients of the hospital (Prior, Anderson, Burns and Campbell) arises sympathy in the reader. Each of them has his own misfortune caused by war, which would probably mark his life forever. They would never be able to continue their ordinary lives and would have to get used to new habits. The tragic fates of these patients make the reader indeed sympathetic. Barker uses the fates of her character to express in a hidden voice her negative attitude towards the war, thus provoking Ã¢â¬Å"anti-warÃ¢â¬ feelings in the reader. In addition, Barker uses other very interesting techniques to represent the awful effects of war on human psychology Ã¢â¬â representation of nightmares, dreams and hallucinations. For example, such a moment is the imaginary meeting, which Sassoon has with his friend Orme in Chapter 13 from part two. Sassoon wakes up Ã¢â¬Å"to find Orme standing immediately inside the doorÃ¢â¬ , but then Ã¢â¬Å"he remembered that Orme was deadÃ¢â¬ (Barker 143). This episode represents another aspect of the war effect Ã¢â¬â grief for all the lost friends, relatives and comrades. In that particular episode, Barker also implies the idea that OrmeÃ¢â¬â¢s visitation is a wake-up call from the dead, delivered by one of them and reminding silently of what Sassoon is delicately trying to forget. With its emotional shade the scene once again makes the reader sympathetic. As a whole, the description of the damage caused to patients, both mental and physical, makes the reader sympathetic. That sympathy in turn, promotes another attitude Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"anti-warÃ¢â¬ attitude. In the novel not only physical and mental injuries are depicted, but also social ones. The social conditions are curved by war. Society puts restrictions on the individual. Any form of protest is forbidden and all those who dare object are condemned Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËconchiesÃ¢â¬â¢, cowards, shirkers, scrimshankers and degeneratesÃ¢â¬ (Barker 4). The novel begins with SassoonÃ¢â¬â¢s bold Declaration. As the plot unfolds, it becomes evident that his ideas are entirely justified but rejected. The government pronounces him mentally ill and silences him in a mental hospital. By censuring SassoonÃ¢â¬â¢s protest, the country prevents another upcoming remonstrance. Also, expression of sexuality is confined in the society. At that time homosexuals would not be accepted in the army. When Sassoon implies his homosexuality during one of his sÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ances with Rivers, the doctor warns him. Even though Rivers really feels sympathy for SassoonÃ¢â¬â¢s unfortunate situation in the prejudiced society, he tells him that he must face the reality he lives in. The doctor explains that society could become more accepting in the future, but it is not likely Ã¢â¬Å"that any movement towards greater tolerance would persist in wartimeÃ¢â¬ (Barker 204). He implies that it is not possible for a single man to change the world and make it look from another angle. Rivers also states its time for Sassoon to grow up and start Ã¢â¬Å"living in the real worldÃ¢â¬ , whether or not he agrees (Barker 205). The purpose of his words is to convince Sassoon that if he admits his sexuality this would worsen his present situation even more. Moreover, through PriorÃ¢â¬â¢s character another social restriction that is denounced Ã¢â¬â censorship. During wartime there is no privacy at all: Ã¢â¬Å"I censored it every week. We read all their lettersÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ (Barker 131). Also, soldiers are never told if their letters have arrived. They are kept like prisoners on the front with their homes and loved ones far away. By depicting all of these social restrictions from the war time Barker maintains the Ã¢â¬Å"anti-warÃ¢â¬ mood throughout the novel. Furthermore, by the end of the novel RiversÃ¢â¬â¢ convictions shift and he realizes how unjust the war is, how awful and long-lasting the consequences are, thus contributing to the peak of the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-war certainty. The idea of unjust war is implied through RiverÃ¢â¬â¢s change. In the beginning his ultimate goal is to see all of his patients return to the front in good health, prepared to fight once again for their country. However, because of some events Rivers starts to question warÃ¢â¬â¢s justification and realizes that he sends his patients to an almost certain death. The culmination of his Ã¢â¬Å"anti-warÃ¢â¬ conviction is when he witnesses BurnsÃ¢â¬â¢ dire condition: Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing justifies this. Nothing nothing nothingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Barker 180). Furthermore, the doctor confirms his fears when he goes to observe YeallandÃ¢â¬â¢s methods. As he watches CallanÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment Rivers is horrified: Ã¢â¬Å"He couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t bare to go on watching. He looked down at the backs of his clasped handsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Barker 232). After that episode Rivers considers the differences between himself and Yealland and for his horror realizes that they are the same. In Chapter 14 his thoughts are released: Ã¢â¬Å"Obviously he and Yealland were both in the business of controlling people. Each of them fitted young men back into role of warrior Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Barker 238). At that point Rivers understands that instead of curing his patients he actually breaks them down. Even though his methods are less severe than YeallandÃ¢â¬â¢s, the effect is the same. To a certain extent Rivers is violating his patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ rights because of war. All of these examples portray how Barker gradually, but effectively builds the Ã¢â¬Å"anti-warÃ¢â¬ suggestion in Regeneration. BarkerÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Regeneration is an Ã¢â¬Å"anti-warÃ¢â¬ book because it provides a unique possibility to the contemporary reader to dive into the depths of a war that had irrevocable effects on soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ mentality. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s personal attitude is expressed by her charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior and destiny in the society. She aims to remind people of what effects the war had on previous generations and warn them, so that the same mistake does not occur. Will it?
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Stock investment is a game of chance as the prices of stocks can be determined through consideration of various components of market. A major concern in stock investment is consideration of available information by investors. Value investing and random walk theory provides mechanism of determining performance of stock investment. Value investing has three main characteristics of financial markets as is described by Bruce C. N in his book. First, the price of stocks is subject to significant movements in financial markets (Greenwald Bruce C. N. , Judd Kahn, et. al. 2001). There are certain impersonal forces that determine price of securities at any moment attracting value buyers to invest in stock markets. Second, despite gyrations in prices of financial securities, many investors have fundamental economic values relatively stable and measured with reasonable accuracy by diligent investors. This means there is a difference between intrinsic value of securities and current price at which a stock trades in the market. Although value and price of financial securities may be identical, there is a difference between the two. Third, in the long -run, buying of financial securities when their market prices are lower than intrinsic value leads to higher returns. These three conditions are major considerations by investors in stock market especially during the period of economic hardships. In 2008, stocks markets were adversely affected by economic down turn whereby the prices of financial securities fell. The end of recession led to a strong surge of stock prices and this critical area affects decisions of value investors and random walkers. Accounting for price surge and fall of stocks by value investors and random walkers is based on fundamental analysis described in the books of Bruton G. Malkiel and Bruce Greenwald. Investment approach I financial markets use existing economic information relating to financial statements of a company and any other relevant information about the affairs of the organization. The fall of security prices in 2008 can be linked with information provided in relation to affairs of stock markets. A major analysis in the concept of financial markets is the concept of top down approach in which the prevailing microeconomic conditions determine price of financial securities. The stage of business cycle in the economy is very important for value investors as information relating to future expectations of price changes is determined. Stock selection model in this aspect of microeconomic conditions is made in a way that ensures stocks of a selected company outperform its peers in industries. The objective of stock market investors is to make more money out of their investment portfolio. Economic down turn caught many investors unaware and price fall of shares was a major threat. The fall of stocks price is attributed to collapse of financial institutions and increased prices of commodities. Investing in financial securities is a mechanism of putting surplus money at disposal by an individual or corporate into investment portfolio such as stock markets in anticipation of higher returns. Increased prices of other commodities leave individuals with less money for disposal. This means that the demand for financial securities decreases thus has an effect in price of stocks. Financial institutions play a very important role in financial markets as they finance value investors. Recession in 2008, made it hard for investors to access loan to invest in financial markets. The economic down turn thus made prices of stocks to fall making investors lose a lot of money. Strong surge of stocks price in 2009 was attributed to changes in economic performance. Random walk down street written by Burton Malkiel is one of the best investment literature used by investors to make wise decisions. The critical concept raised in this article is the issue of price movements. Price of financial securities has no memory and thus investors cannot rely on past and present prices to predict future performance of stocks market. However, relying on information provided by financial analyst or experts is of essence in the aspect of stock investment. Malkiel maintains that, buy and hold strategy is the best policy in the event of price surges as it outperforms attempts of timing markets in returns (Malkiel Burton, 2007). Consequently, in risk adjusted returns, the concept of buy and hold strategy is not credible. In this aspect buy and hold strategy is more of guesswork as it has little impact in compensating risk associated with continuous investment in stocks market. Efficiency of market is another concept used by investors in the event of stocks price fall like in 2008 and strong surge for stock price as was experienced in 2009. Financial markets are to some extent predictable but this should not be considered as a symptom of inefficiency or irrationality. Predictability of stocks market is the concept behind capitalism as was argued by Andrew a professor in finance. Investors make high returns from efficient markets because information about stocks price is provided through research and constant innovation. The strong surge of stocks price is an element of investment in which many organizations strife to maintain competitive advantage.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Business Report - Essay Example This helps us to engross in a business scenario design and recommend substitute strategies ensuring a comprehensive market appraisal. Later in the document contains the endorsements for the modifications in the structure of the organization, bearing in mind the finest probable manner of handling the business collection and human possessions. An investigation is commenced with the financial assets and broad-spectrum corporation possessions as well as product expansion founded on the gaining of innovative understanding (Augustin, 2011). Consequently, the document recommends designing the impression of strategic alteration in operational administration, and scrutinizes any global plans for the firm. Precisely, this analysis offers in depth strategic SWOT analysis of the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses and operations. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s explanation delivers a perfect and impartial opinion of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s key strengths and weaknesses and the prospective opportunities and threats. T his will aid to express strategies that supplement the trade by allowing you to comprehend their followers, patrons and competitors better. Introduction Sainsbury was established in 1869 and nowadays functioning in over 1,106 hypermarkets and suitability stores. The company has around 157,000 employees in all over the World. The slogan of the company is that we (the company) place our clients at the heart of the whole thing we fix and have devoted in their stores, their contemporaries and their channels to distribute the greatest likely shopping experience. Their resilient philosophy and values are the part of their uniqueness and essential to their success (Rowley, 2003). Core values The core values of the company are given as: Accomplishment improved every day Ã¢â¬â the company emphasizes on enlightening its facilities. Countless services drive sales, however, there is a condition that better provision is pointing to higher sales. Discrete accountability team delivery even thou gh teamwork is invigorated, right a distinct in the firm has accountability in the conference service standards. Retain it modest, humble and well-organized services are obtainable (jÃ¢â¬âSainsbury, 2013). Admiration for the discrete employee Ã¢â¬â each discrete worker within the company is appreciated for his extravagance services. The income of the business is intended for dissemination and improvement of the corporation (Yong, James, Kevin, and Donna, 2011,). Strategy The values of the J Sainsbury are the section of their extended term strategy of development. The company is ready to review and reinforce their strategy, in order to create a decent business sense and provision of an actual competitive benefit (Wrigley, 2000). Business Performance The J Sainsbury has had one more efficacious year, outdoing the flea market in what residue a hard trading atmosphere. Their segment of the grocery shop is the uppermost for an era at 16.8% and they are at the moment the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s second major grocer ensuing 35 uninterrupted quarters of like for like sales progress. We endure to aid customers Live Well for Less and stared like for like auctions up 1.45 for the 28 weeks up to 28 the September 2013 (Francis, 2011). Business case The J Sainsbury recognizes as true as their values and their 20 x 20 sustainability obligations play an immense part in their accomplishment. They deliver opportunities for the employees to discriminate themselves with client, dealers,
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Nursing Ethics of Patients - Case Study Example And lastly, an ethical decision-making model will be discussed keeping in view the given scenario. Ethical theories form the bedrock on which the guiding principles of the nursing profession are based. They are responsible for providing a structural approach to moral reasoning in this profession (Med India, 2011). Most often than not, healthcare professionals are faced with situations that require the employment of such ethical theories for the purpose of moral reasoning so as to conclude the moral value of a judgment under consideration (Registered Nurse Canada, 2009). Example of the employment of such theories includes granting the right to the patients to be able to make their own treatment-related decisions. This term refers to the right of an individual to keep the medical information and records private. The information under its clause can only be trusted to the healthcare professionals dealing with the patient and is not to be made public or even given to someone else without the consent of the patient (Fullbrook, 2007). Even though confidentiality is something that is to be valued and respected, there are situations in which that does not seem like the best thing to do, as is the scenario in the given case. In such cases, it is considered that one establishes a domain of certain reasonable limits. It would somehow restrict the boundary to which the confidentiality principle is to be respected (Wolfe, 1962). However, in cases where the confidentiality aspect endangers the prospective patient, it becomes an ethical dilemma for the healthcare professionals that are then torn between upholding the confidentiality and informing others of the condition for treatment (Corey & Callanan, 1998). Even though confidentiality is a vital practice in the medical profession, just like all the other factors, it is not absolute. (Wynia, 2007).
Graduate Reflection Paper 2(b) - Essay Example Psychology plays a part in every aspect of leadership, especially when it is applied to employees and customers To keep employees and customers happy, psychology is usually employed. Psychology is also employed when companies go to a global clientele and they are working with people of different cultures. Another area where psychology is important is in the hiring of new employees. Dynamic leaders must understand what the company needs are and then find ways to screen candidates in order to find the best talent for all positions. Some companies rely on psychological concepts and testing to help them define whether the potential employee has the characteristics needed for the position. There are many concepts that use psychology as a base. As an example, Naisbitt and Aburdene (1990) spoke about the fact that most organizations need to capitalize on the benefits of diversity. The reason they must do this is because the way that diverse groups are able to work together will directly impact the productivity that can be expected from the employees. Psychological models will be important to use beaus they reinforce work with others and place building relationships as the most important aspect of dynamic leadership. As an example, Goethals (2005) understood that the model of psychodynamics used by Freud, was useful in studying leadership. In using Freuds theory, he learned that when someone is able to blindly obey a leader, it is because they had an "instinct to submit to authority" (Goethals, 2005, p. 99) and the leader had to assert their authority for it to happen. Another model that is important is the social-cognitive model. This model emphasizes the concepts of social identity and its interaction with a group. Many people find their social identity through interaction with their own groups or teams. This model emphasizes two specific processes that people go through to find their social identity" a0
Saturday, July 27, 2019
International management - Essay Example The report recommends that the plan limit the number of marketing objectives to four; identifying international markets, developing generational marketing strategies, maximizing opportunities arising out of the 2012 London Olympic Games and increasing the membership and private donor support. Data compiled by the Office of National Statistics and the Department of Culture are utilized to identify target markets in Western Europe and North America. The remaining global nations are targeted through existing Olympic Games partnerships. The core marketing strategy revolves around the use of digital media networks and interactive video technologies. The SHIPS website should be completely re-designed and social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter should be utilized to market the SHIPS product to younger people. The report recommends that a full-time marketing manager be hired to oversee all aspects of the marketing plan, its implementation and the evaluation of outcomes. A budget of $140,000 pounds has been identified to implement the marketing strategy and a timeline of 23 months has been established leading up to the opening of the 2012 Olympic Games. LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ships of Historic Interest Partnership (SHIPS) is dedicated to the preservation of the unique heritage of Britain as a maritime nation. Its seven historic ships provide an orientation and education to visitors about the important role that sea trade played in helping to shape the economy of Britain and several other European nations as well (londonships.org). One of the major challenges that SHIPS faces is to expand the scope of its message to target audiences outside of the United Kingdom where few people know of the historic ships as a potential tourist destination during visits to London. This comprehensive marketing assessment provides analysis and
Friday, July 26, 2019
Criminal Law Assignment - Essay Example The most popular rhetorical questions are, what do you mean by Ã¢â¬Å"reasonableÃ¢â¬ ? Ã¢â¬Å"How do you recognise a reasonable man?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Based on what criteria will one judge as to the reasonableness of a person?Ã¢â¬ reasonable person as the Ã¢â¬Å"ordinary person, is the person you must consider when you are considering the effect which any acts, any conduct, any words, might have to justify the steps which were taken in response thereto, so that an unusually excitable or pugnacious individual, or a drunken one or a man who is sexually impotent is not entitled to rely on provocation which would not have led an ordinary person to have acted in the way which was in fact carried out.2 Long before the enactment of the Homicide Act 1957, the philosophy of the reasonable man had been fairly established. Section 3 of the Homicide Act 1957 provides that where on a charge of murder there is evidence on which the jury find that the person charged was provoked (whether by things done or by things said or both together) to lose his self-control, the question whether the provocation was enough to make a reasonable man to do as he did shall be left to be determined by the jury. Furthermore, in determining that question, the jury shall take into account everything both done and said according to the effect, which, in their opinion, it would have on a reasonable man. In Regina v Smith decided by the House of Lords, section 3 of the 1957 Act was further discussed that where there is evidence on which the jury can find that the defendant was provoked to lose his self-control, (1) the judge is bound to leave that matter to the jury and (2) the jury are to decide the matter by taking into account everything done and said according to the effect which, in their opinion, it would have on a reasonable man. 3 The enactment of the Homicide Law proved to be divisive in the light of the Philosophy of the Reasonable Man. Lord Hoffmann observes, section 3 modified the law in two
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Definition of Philosophy - Dissertation Example The paper is aimed to compare the two given definitions of philosophy, based on Aristotle and Novalis. Aristotle defined philosophy as a body of knowledge that begins with wonder. Novalis defined philosophy as homesickness, or the longing (nostalgia) for a home one never had which results in search for knowledge. Between the two definitions of philosophy, AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s view is more logical, thus, it can be considered to best define philosophy. He presented the essential elements that are required to establish the knowledge in philosophy. One is the sense of wonder which drives the quest for knowledge. This element can be considered as the primary phase in the field of philosophizing. Another is wisdom which had been equated with the terms vision and the manner of perceiving a concept. This is important because the manner of exploration in the field of philosophy is through critical thinking. While the definition of Novalis is more artistic and literary in perspective, AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s view is more scientific which is important since philosophical thoughts and concepts are established through scientific method and inquiry.
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Cultural competence - Essay Example Cultural accommodation strategies include covering babyÃ¢â¬â¢s head and burial of the placenta among others. The aforementioned strategy aims at facilitating cultural practices that are yet to be scientifically harmful. Nursing professionals advocate acknowledgment, respect, and understanding of diverse cultural beliefs. Secondly, cultural re-patterning entails working with the client in order to adjust existing cultural practices. For instance, fried foods from various cultures, abuse of a spouse, and teas for a healthy baby are some practices under cultural re-patterning. If a patient domiciles from a tribe that advocates the use of herbs, a nurse needs to convince the patient to desist from using herbs by quoting different herbs that have adverse impacts. Finally, cultural brokering entails encouraging and mediating between cultural norm of clients and the biomedical structure (Huber, 2009). Accommodation of a vast range of cultures facilitates in gaining the desired knowledge and competence. There are various challenges facing cultural competency in the nursing perspective. For instance, stereotypes, racism, and discrimination are some of the hiccups that are prevalent. However, nurses are encouraged to approach clients in a professional manner while addressing their problems (Jeffreys, 2010). Therefore, nurse-patient relationship is of vital importance in the administration of effective health care for patients with diverse cultural
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Research paper - Essay Example It is true that for many reasons the whole idea seems relaxing, dependable and reliable there are people who take advantage of the same. There are very many benefits of online shopping that make it so popular among various people with different reasons of shopping online. For instance, people do not have to move around the city searching for something, instead, they only need the internet connection, and they get to select every item that they need at their own time and speed. With the improved technology, they can as well shop from their mobile phones from wherever they are (Filipe & Obaidat, 2008). Online shopping also gives consumers a variety of items to choose from with various outlets to select from making it very effortless for people to virtually get anything they need. There is also the advantage of locating everything usual online as opposed to physical retailers where it is easy to miss something someone needs. Though the online shopping has only been praised for many people, there are some cases where it can be regarded dangerous. For example, if people are not very keen while doing online shopping, they could find themselves in the hands of cyber thieves and end up losing a lot of money. This may come as a shock thinking that people have believed online shopping to be the safest place to buy items, but someone may be targeted and conned easily. This is why people are advised to manage their online shopping properly and be keen on the people they communicate to regarding online shopping. Another disadvantage of online shopping is that a person first pays for an item before it is mailed or delivered to them unlike at retails shops where people get to carry their items to their destination. People are advised to perform online shopping to stores with excellent status (Filipe & Obaidat, 2008). There is also the disadvantage of wrong product being delivered to the customer and there are no re funds in most of the online
Monday, July 22, 2019
Netflix case study Essay Netflix offers online video streaming and DVD rental services for a flat fee to all subscribers. After Reed Hastings, the CEO of Netflix had announced the companys new strategy of separating its online service and DVD rental services into two accounts for its subscribers, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stock fell to $63 per share from $300 per share and lost 805,000 subscribers in three month. Although facing so many challenges, Reed Hastings choose to continue his new strategies, but with a sincerely apologize for the change and a detailed explanation of why they made this decision and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s in it for current subscribers. Stock price of Netflix close on yesterday was 312.40. Problems and challenges Although it seems that Netflix has recovered from the separation strategy, but there still are some problems and challenges are waiting for the company. First of all, Netflix online streaming branch is facing fierce competition from companies like Amazon instant video, YouTube, iTunes store, and Hulu. Second, On-demand TV offering are now hot area, many big-pay TV operator such as Verizon and Comcast Corp are trying to bring on-demand TV to cable users which will offer fresher content than online streaming companies like Netflix. Third of all, The DVD rental branch called Qwikster are now competing with companies like Amazon and Redbox DVD rental. From what we can see in the future, DVD service may finally run out of business and how to minimize the damage to Netflix is a big problem waiting for a solution. SWOT Strength Netflix is offering a flat fee policy, which is cheaper than Amazon and iTunes users and is easier to retain current users. A very distinctive strength Netflix have is that Netflix is also a producer. In this yearÃ¢â¬â¢s Emmy Awards, Netflix Incs groundbreaking political thriller House of Cards took home an award for directing. As its name shows in Emmy, Netflix may win not only an award, but many potential users. Many people may position Netflix as a company provides high quality shows than other video distributors. Weakness Although the stock price has gone up this year and everyone now thinks Reed Hastings is the one sees the future, the remaining problem is how to survive with a $7.99 monthly flat fee for subscribers and at the same time spending more than $5 billion for the next five years to purchase TV shows and Movie License. Customers always wants more and pay less. Huge amount of spending force Netflix to attract new users in a rapid speed, but attract new users itself will be another big spending. Although the original drama Ã¢â¬Å"house of cardsÃ¢â¬ generated a big buzz for Netflix, but the cost is considerable. Opportunities New technologies bring opportunities to online streaming video companies. Netflix has mobile app for both Android and ios system and it works well. People want to access to on-demand videos more convenient by using mobile phone and tablets. The trend of globalization gives Netflix the opportunity to grow itself. The fourth quarter of 2012, Netflix gained 3 million new global subscribers. Threat Competition from Amazon, iTunes, Hulu, Google TV, and cable networks may pose threat to the company. BRAD BEALE, Director of digital video content acquisition of Amazon is known for its ability of picking up successful shows and get the license earlier than other companies. Hulu also spend a lot on bringing new contents in. Although Netflix is cheaper, Amazon offers free instant vedio to prime membership and two-day free shipping for its customers. Also, Amazon, Apple and Google now all offer their own devices for video streaming, such as Apple TV, Kindle Fire. Questions Q.1. A strong consumer backlash emerged in response to major changes in NetflixÃ¢â¬â¢s business model. What are some of the arguments in favor of HastingÃ¢â¬â¢ decision to split the company? What decisions and options are available to Hastings? Were they good decisions? 2- 3 paragraphs Many believe DVD rental business is fading because of new technologies. People no longer want to wait for the DVD to arrive. Instead they want on-demand video services. Slip the company bring price lower for stream only customers and it is fair for them to pay for cheaper price. Put in account information is easier and benefit is longer. Hastings can choose to change the company back to the old model by listening to customers and close the DVD service a couple years later when the DVD rental industry lost all the business. I think its good decisions because the financial information shows that Reed Hastings made the good decision and wins the game. The revenue grow almost half and subscribers grow even more this year. Works Cited Laporte, N. (2013, July 1). A TALE OF TWO NETFLIX. Fast Comapny , 177, pp. 31-32. Mint. (2013, September 23). Breaking Bad, Modern Family win top Emmy Awards. (H. M. Ltd., Producer) Retrieved Septemner 29, 2013, from Mint: http://search.proquest.com.rlib.pace.edu/docview/1434860801?accountid=13044 Peterson, T. (2013, September 23). 2013 MEDIA MAVENS: BRAD BEALE. Advertising Age , 84 (33), p. 1. Ramachadran, S. (2013, September 20). Cable Fights to Feed Binge TV Viewers; Comcast, Verizon FiOS Vie With Netflix, Amazon for Rights to Show Complete Series. (Dow Jones Company Inc) Retrieved September 30, 2013, from Wall Street Journal: http://search.proquest.com.rlib.pace.edu/docview/1434160601?accountid=13044 View as multi-pages
Catholic Church Essay Dorothy Day was a journalist, social activist, and a devout Catholic and preacher of the Catholic way of life. In her later years, she also became a preacher of the nonviolent way of living. She started a newspaper, the Catholic Worker to teach the Catholic way of life to people. She led a movement of noncooperation and civil disobedience to teach pacifism to the people. In this essay, I am going to discuss the life and work of Dorothy Day. Dorothy Day was an American journalist and social activist, who was also a staunch Catholic and a devotee of Catholic way of life. She was born on November 8, 1897 in Brooklyn, New York. Day started her career as a reporter in a newspaper. In November 1917, Day went to prison for protesting for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage. She had a common-law marriage in 1924 from which she had a daughter in 1997. Her marriage ended by this time. By this time, Day had a strong unshakeable belief in God and the Catholic Church. On December 28, 1927 she joined the Catholic Church. She tried to bring together her religious beliefs and her radical thinking. In December 1932, she met Peter Maurin who was a devout Catholic with whom she had a common-law marriage. He envisioned a future in which society would be based on the social values of the Gospel. They decided to start a newspaper that would promote Catholic ideals and transform the society to adopt these ideals. They started the paper, the Catholic Worker, on May 1, 1933. The paper met with instant success. The paperÃ¢â¬â¢s circulation increased to 100,000 copies by December. In the paper, Maurin called for a renewal in the Christian practices of hospitality to strangers. Day and Maurin began providing shelter to homeless people in several houses. By 1936, the Catholic Worker had assumed the proportions of a national movement. They set up several farming communes (Forest). Day was also a staunch advocate of pacifism. Throughout the Second World War, Day preached pacifism and nonviolence. She maintained her stand during the Civil War in Spain, World War II, and the Vietnam war. Her supporters refused to cooperate in the war against Vietnam or to be conscripted. When the hydrogen bomb was being tested and there were civil defense drills, she refused to cooperate with the drills and was jailed several times. Day was honored for her achievements by the Church. She died in 1980. The Vatican has approved a process, which may canonize Dorothy Day as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church (Forest). References Forest, Jim. A Biography of Dorothy Day. Catholic Worker Home Page. Retrieved October 20, 2008 from http://www. catholicworker. com/ddaybio. htm
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Effects of Static and Dynamic Culture Conditions Tissue engineering has been investigating the properties of scaffolds and cell culture conditions for better cell attachment, viability and proliferation. This study compares the two cell culture conditions: Static and spinner flask / dynamic cell conditions over a period of 7 days on polyglycolyic acid. The scaffolds were statistically seeded by mouse dermal 3T3 fibroblast in static culture method and on other hand seeded scaffolds were transferred to spinner flask at approx.60 rpm in dynamic culture method. Significant improvement in cell viability was not observed in both the conditions after 7 days of culturing. The cells adhesion successfully took place and expressed cytoskeleton ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin in both the methods but achieving maximum distribution of cells on the scaffold in dynamic method. This study reports that static culture method could produce increase in cell number approximately six times more after 7 days of culture i.e. from 1.2 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã µ (ÃâÃ ±0.1610Ã ¢Ã Ã µ) cells to 6.3 x10Ã ¢Ã Ã µ (ÃâÃ ±110Ã ¢Ã Ã µ) cells. Surprisingly, instead of enhancing the growth of 3T3 fibroblast cells in dynamic condition, they seems to be probably undergoing cell death/loss as reported by alamar blue, hoechst DNA assays, toludine blue and western blot. Overall, static condition favoured the cell adhesion, proliferation and ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin expression gradually with days and produced better reproducible data compared to dynamic condition. The techniques involved in dynamic culture method needs to be more carefully investigated and improved further to draw a strong conclusion. The aim of the study is to implement the principles of fundamental techniques in tissue engineering in culture method on the three dimensional polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds seeded with 3T3 fibroblast. To compare and contrast the effects on cells in spinner flask or dynamic culture condition method with the static culture condition method by observing and analysing on factors like cell adhesion, distribution, proliferation, viability and expression of cytoskeleton after culturing in the same system for 7 days using alamar blue, hoechst 33258 DNA assays, toludine blue staining and western blot analysis. Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field which aims in developing new approaches for functional substitutes applicable in restoration of damaged or injured tissues. These substitutes are complex constructs of living cells, bioactive molecules and three dimensional porous scaffolds, which supports cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, its main objective to achieve in therapy is to form a living tissue from small population of mammalian cells. For this, the ideal tissue engineering strategy so far has remained to develop tissue by seeding the specific population of cells on three-dimensional constructs which not only provides a structural support to cell mass but also can effectively influence cell attachment, growth and differentiation either by incorporation of adhesion molecules or controlled release on bioactive molecules from the scaffold. After seeding of cells onto the 3-D scaffolds construct, the cells starts proliferating which results in deposi tion of extracellular matrix components and biodegradation of scaffolds. The latter makes the porous construct of scaffold more solid 3-D. Several other factors affect the 3D tissue growth including scaffold design, seeding method and the culture condition methods. Studies have reported that high degree of cell attachment to biocompatible and biodegradable particles, while avoiding aggregate formation can be achieved using poly co-glycolic acid (PGA) scaffold of 50-100mm spherical size fabricated by electro-spinning technique. This method provides reliable, reproducible and well-characterized PGA scaffold. The surface chemistry of the scaffold helps to determine the particle size, shape, morphology and distribution. Depending on the experiments, surface modifications are performed like formation of poly l-lactide-coglycolide (PLGA) via ring opening polymerisation and fibronectin coating to scaffolds. However, it is not the part of standard protocol. Depending on the size, the required cell density for maximum attachment may differ to obtained optimal cell attachment. The seeding is usually done using the cell suspension of a particular seeding density which allows for maximum dispersion of cells and well integration into the pores of the scaffolds. But for therapeutic purposes, however, this strategy is not sufficient enough to result in an overall improvement in conditions due to severe tissue damages. This can be overcome only by achieving relatively high degree of cell attachment to the micro-particle. Several factors and parameters influence the cell adhesion like the curvature of the particles, the particle material, the electrostatic charge of the particles, the surface motif of the particles, the interaction between cell and particles, the number of cells in the tissue culture and type of cell culture method implemented. It is also important to obtain homogenous cell adhesion to the scaffolds and avoiding clumping which will lead to the formation of cell-particle aggregates. This will prevent cells from appropriate uptake of nutrient from the media and hinder their subsequent growth. The mammalian cells are usually cultured in static or bioreactors condition. Here in this study, spinner flask system is employed which is also a kind of bioreactor as it provides the 3D environment. It is a flask provided with magnetic rod which keeps rotating constantly at specified speed. The nature of growing cells requires such dynamic condition to mimic the environment similar inside the body which gives sufficient nutrient supply, waste exchange, enhances ECM and gap junction formation, and cell-cell interaction. Most importantly it also helps maintain the cells differentiated in 3D which is needed for tissue formation. This characteristic is not maintained by static culture method. Hence, many 3D culture methods have been developed such as perfusion chambers, rotary vessels and commercial perfused bioreactors with improved capacity for mass transport of nutrients and waste product. They help in formation of relatively good quality of tissue by more enhanced cell differentiati on and also maintaining in that state. The static culture method used in this study, tissue culture plastic with seeded scaffolds remains untouched in the incubator. But with static culture, alternative shaking on a shaker and resting can also be employed to provide better supply of nutrient through media. The attachment characteristic of ECM proteins such as laminin, will also depend upon the cell type used. There are particular conditions needed to be optimised with each cell type. Most of the tissue engineering experiments uses 3T3 fibroblast only to optimise the cell culture condition where there is optimum cell adhesion is obtained before using the actual stem cell of interest. This is because, 3T3 fibroblast are known to easily attach to any surfaces due to presence of the high density of integrins on their cell surface. This will not only enhance the cell attachment but will also give maximum possible interaction with the particle. Cells that have spread on the particles exhibit a clear halo of cytoplasm surrounding their nucleus after the rearrangement of their actin skeleton. The attachment and spreading of cells to a substrate surface is often seen as a basic characteristic, but is, in fact, the initial process that subsequently influences and regulates cell growth, survival, migration and differentiation. In addition, cell-to-substrate interaction, mediated by integrins, also influence cell behaviour and signalling pathways leading to modifications in upstream and/or downstream cellular activity. Thus, a desirable substrate should allow sufficient and optimal cell attachment and spreading characteristics to occur. The 3T3 fibroblast media is used in which DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS enhances the cell attachment as the serum is highly protein rich and therefore, helps in cell in adhesion by supplying the ECM-proteins as well as nourishing them. Hence, the serum conditioning step is of critical importance in maintaining cells health and attachment in the culture. Materials and Methods Scaffold preparation and serum conditioning PGA FELT Scaffolds disc of 2mm x 10mm and 45mg/cc (TE005-50-10) was provided by Smith and Nephew research group, University of Nottingham. These non-culture scaffolds were then treated in 24 well tissue culture plastics (TCP) plates with 3T3 fibroblast media containing 500ml DMEM (Sigma G7513) supplemented with 10% FCS, 2mM L-glutamine and 1% AB/AM (Sigma A5955). All the scaffolds were statistically seeded on day 1 using non-culture treated well plates to encourage the cells of mouse dermal 3T3 fibroblast to adhere to the scaffolds at seeding density of 1x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã ¶cells/ml. 3T3 fibroblast cell suspension was added in TCP plates for all test and no cells in the blanks. The plates are then incubated overnight at 37Ã °C, 5%COÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã¢â¬Å¡ in air. The remaining cell suspension was then again resuspended in warm media to achieve 4 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã ¶ cells/ml cell density and was stored at -20Ã °C till day 7 for Hoechst analysis. 3T3 fibroblast cells were used to seed the scaffolds to observe the cell viability, cell proliferation and ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin expression on day 1, when the cell culture condition was maintained static and day 7, after applying the two cell culture conditions (static dynamic) and maintaining for 7 days. Static culture In static culture condition, the seeded and non-seeded (blanks) scaffolds were kept in 1ml of warm 3T3 fibroblast media per well. These five culture plates were kept in incubator and cultured for 7 days at 37Ã °C, 5%COÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã¢â¬Å¡ in air. Spinner flask culture Two separate spinner flask filled with 50ml warm media each was used for seeded scaffolds and non-seeded (blanks) scaffolds. These flasks were kept in incubator by loosening the side arms and setting the magnetic stirrer approximately at 60rpm and cultured for 7 days at 37Ã °C, 5%COÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã¢â¬Å¡ in air. After following 7 days for culture conditions, the construct was then sacrificed for alamar blue, toludine blue and Hoechst analysis. Also, in addition cytoskeleton analysis using western blot was also carried out. The assessment of two culture methods, static and dynamic was done by producing five set of readings for static condition and four set of readings for dynamic condition where the experimental analysis were conducted using three replicates for test and blanks on day1 and day7 Alamar Blue Assay Staining was done using 10% alamar blue containing 1ml alamar blue (Serotec BUF012B) and 9ml HBSS without phenol red (Sigma H1387). The stain was kept in dark at 37Ã °C. The scaffold was transferred from seeding and culture conditions to new 24-TCP non-cultured plate with 1ml warm alamar blue after washing three times with PBS. The plates were then incubated at 37Ã °C, 5%COÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã¢â¬Å¡ for 1hr. The aliquots of 3 x 100ÃâÃ µl of alamar blue were transferred to 3 wells of 96 microtitre well plate including the blanks to measure fluorescence using plate reader (Ex530nm/Em590nm). The excess of alamar blue solution was aspirated and washed with 1ml sterile PBS. Toludine Blue Staining Scaffold for toludine blue staining was transferred to new non-culture treated 24well TCP plate and was treated with 1ml ice cold 95% (v/v) methanol in dHÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã¢â¬Å¡O for 5 mins after washing 3 times with 1ml warm PBS. Then fixative was discarded and scaffold was allowed to air dry at RT followed by treatment with 1ml aqueous 0.1% (w/v) toludine blue (Fisher chemicals BPE107-10) for 5 mins. The scaffold was again allowed to air dry at RT. Papain Digest and Hoechst 33258 DNA Assay The aliquot of cell pellet (4 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã ¶ cells) prepared on day1 was treated with 1ml of papain solution (1.06mg/ml, pH 6.5) (Sigma P4762) followed by overnight incubation in waterbath at 60Ã °C. The serial dilutions of the papain digested cell pellet using hydrolysed papain solution as diluent was prepared for 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312 and 0 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã ¶ cells. In the Hoechst 33258 DNA assay, the hydrolysed papain solution was used as blank. 5ÃâÃ µl of each aliquots + 70 ÃâÃ µl Hoechst dilution buffer was added in triplicates in black 96-well plate including the blank. In each well, 100 ÃâÃ µl Hoechst 33258 working solution (Sigma S6639) was also added and fluorescence was measured using plate reader (Ex 360nm/Em 460 nm) Western Blot 100ÃâÃ µl cold RIPA buffer (Sigma R0278) was added to the cell pellet (4 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã ¶ cells) and the seeded scaffolds in eppendorf from day 1 and was kept on ice for 20 mins while vortexing every 5 mins. The cells were then snap freezed by placing it on dry ice for 1 min then 1-3 min at RT. The cells are resuspended by grating and spinning for 30 mins. The supernatant was used for western blot. 10ÃâÃ µl of molecular weight marker and each sample were loaded onto SDS polyacrylamide gel. The electrophoresis was carried out for 90 mins at 125V. After SDS-page electrophoresis, the filter paper, nitrocellulose and sponge were soak in transfer buffer (Invitrogen NP0006) with 20% (v/v) methanol. The assembled western blot tank was run for 1 hr at 25V. The immune-detection of protein ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin was performed using primary antibody anti-mouse ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin (Sigma A2006) and secondary antibody anti-mouse horse radish peroxidises (HRP) (Invitrogen G21234). Statistical analysis All the data obtained was calculated using MS-Excel spreadsheet and statistic Independent t-test and paired t-test analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results and Discussion Morphology of 3T3 fibroblast cells The cell of mouse dermal 3T3 fibroblast was obtained from T180 flask by trypsin digest method is shown in figure1. The flask was confluent enough (80%) and morphology of the cells seems to be intact and healthy. No sign of contamination was observed prior to seeding procedure. The morphology of 3T3 fibroblast cells are of flat and spindled shape. These cells form a well-characterised and established mesh like interconnected networks. This property of fibroblast cells make them ideal for cell attachment as they show anchorage property due to presence of integrins in ECM. Hence, using this cell type achieving maximum cell adhesion onto the scaffolds becomes ideal for this experiment. Effect on Cell viability in static and dynamic conditions The alamar blue assay was performed on the static and dynamic culture condition to observe its effect on 3T3 fibroblast cell viability is shown in figure 2a and 2b. The culture method employed aims to maintain or increase the cell viability when cultured for seven days. Under static condition (Fig 2a), only 1 group out of five showed significant increase in fluorescence whereas other two groups showed more or less no change in their fluorescence produced from day 1 to day 7. Also, on contrary two groups showed significant decrease in fluorescence on day 7 (Fig 2a). Hence, variable of results were obtained between groups. On the other hand, under dynamic condition, the cell produced more fluorescence on day 7 compared to day1 expect for one group. Therefore on an average, when mean of the static absorbance reading was taken, it showed that there is significant decrease in fluorescence (fig 2b). But in dynamic method, the increase in fluorescence day 7 (Fig 2b) was not significant enou gh. The 3-D construct of PGA scaffold provides with an environment to the cells where they remain viable in culture for several weeks. Moreover, they should successfully increase the cell viability after some days. However, our study reported that the cell viability decreased tremendously in cell seeded PGA scaffolds in static cell culture condition whereas the dynamic cell culture method was able to increase the cell viability over 7 days of culture. So, when comparing the two culture methods statistically showed difference in their overall effect on the viability of 3T3 fibroblast cells where dynamic condition is more but not effective enough. So, static condition did not improve the cell viability more than dynamic culture method. Effect on Cell distribution in PGA scaffolds The three-dimensional PGA scaffolds constructs enables the fibroblastic cells to adhere and to evenly distribute throughout the porous structure. To assess the uniform 3T3 fibroblast cell distribution in two different culture conditions, toludine blue staining was carried out on day 1 and day 7 on both conditions is shown in fig 3. Toludine blue stains cell dark blue within the 3-D construct. As observed in static condition, on day 1 the cells were successfully seeded onto the scaffold but compared to day 7 the cells are not evenly distributed throughout the scaffold. Also, the scaffolds were efficiently seeded on day1 under dynamic condition as the figure 3c shows cells stained with toludine blue. Surprisingly, on day 7 (Fig 3d), the scaffolds shows no cells at all. This means, that the 3T3 fibroblast cells under dynamic condition was eventually lost or died. The spinner flask culture system might have loose the cells by day 7 due to poor adhesion or vigorous rotation. The cell seed ed on day 1 was too low or error in carryout the technique. But this was observed with all the spinner flask condition system, where the success was 2 out of 4 groups (Supplementary data 3). However, this observation is more of debate because no other factors expect the condition itself could affect cell distribution as uniform distribution was achieved in all the five static condition (supplementary data 3) which used the same scaffolds and cell type. Effect on Cell proliferation in static and dynamic conditions 3T3 fibroblast was culture over 7 days in both conditions to also observe its effect on the cell proliferation are shown in figure 4 (a, b, c d). The standard curve obtained with known cell density for both static and dynamic of all the groups (fig 4a 4b) showed increase in cell density with increase in the fluorescence. The unknown cell density of the cells from these two culture methods on day 1 and day 7 was calculated and found that 2 out 4 groups from dynamic conditions had no cells in the culture on day 7. Therefore, only other two groups were considered to evaluate the cell number on day 1 and day 7. There was significant difference in cell density over 7 days of culture in static method (n=5)(fig 4c) and on contrast there was no significant difference in cell density in dynamic method (n=2)(fig 4c). Almost all the groups showed cell density on day 1 around 1 x10Ã ¢Ã Ã µ cells/ml which was the actual cell density seeded on day 1 (supplementary data 4). This shows that se eding performed on scaffold achieved effective adhesion of all the cells present. The mean cell number from 1.2 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã µ (ÃâÃ ± 0.16 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã µ) cells on day 1 increased to 6.3 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã µ (ÃâÃ ± 1 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã µ) cells on day 7 under static culture method (fig 4d). On the other hand, dynamic culture methods showed hardly any change in cell number over 7 days of culture i.e. 2.0 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã µ (ÃâÃ ± 0.92 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã µ) cells on day 1 to 2.5 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã µ (ÃâÃ ± 1.96 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã µ) cells on day 7 (fig 4d). Previous studies have reported using other cell types that they start proliferating within 24 hrs after seeding cells on scaffolds employing dynamic culture methods. Contradicting this, our results have shown that dynamic had really poor effect on cell proliferation. Moreover, 3T3 fibroblast cells were undergoing death during seven days of culture. Whereas, static culture method shows drastic increment in the cell number and thus supporting 3T3 fibroblast cell proliferation efficiently. The scaffolds used for alama r blue assay on day 1 were used for Hoechst DNA assay with same after washing step (same for day 7 scaffolds). The washing might have been too vigorous which resulted in cell loss. It could also be possible that cells are being aspirated off from the culture which gave poor or no cell proliferation. It should be also taken into account that the success rate with dynamic culture method on cell proliferation was null out of 4 demonstrations. Expression of Cytoskeleton For the analysis of expression of cytoskeleton ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin on 3T3 fibroblast in two different conditions was done by western blot as shown in figure 5. The cell pellet of density 4 x10Ã ¢Ã Ã ¶ cells/ml was loaded against the cells obtained on day1 and day 7 from static and spinner flask culture method. The density of ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin obtained from the cell pellet was maximum. The amount of ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin detected on day 1 was lower than day 7 in static culture condition. It was the opposite scenario with spinner flak method where day 7 had minimum amount of ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin compared to day1. In some cases of spinner flask method ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin was not even detected on day 7 (supplementary data 5). Hence, comparatively the expression of ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin was higher in static culture method. Perhaps, it could be because the cell could not proliferate much as expected. Also, the culture didnt have enough cells left to express ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin on western blot. The formation of ECM cytoskel eton was not shown to be supported by spinner flask method. Conclusion and future work The tissue engineering scaffolds constructs have been shown more effective on cells containing serum in spinner flask/dynamic culture method rather than in static culture method. But from our data, it shows that dynamic condition only favoured cell adhesion and distribution. It was also able to produce a small increment in cell viability unlike static culture method. Contradicting the other data, cells were virtually not detected on day 7 and so is the expression of ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin. Not only this, all the 4 demonstration failed to show that cell growth can be effectively supported in dynamic culture method. Three seeded scaffolds were kept in spinner flask together, where there is increased chance for it to come in contact with each other. Cells may get detached from the scaffolds as it might be loosely adhere to the scaffold. The continuous rotation of magnetic rod in the flask circulates the media to provide nutrients to cells more effectively then static. Despite of this fact, the cells were either undergoing cell death or dislodged from the scaffolds or may be aspirated off from the culture. The static culture method have been effective in 3T3 fibroblast adhesion on the construct after seeding and eventually could improve tremendous cell growth by showing increase in cell proliferation over a period of seven days in culture. However, better distribution and increased ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin expression could only be achieved by the static culture method after 7 days as the cells proliferated more. Moreover, the success rate for this method was more compared to dynamic and produced more reliable and reproducible data. Hence, it can be concluded that static culture method supported cell growth better then the dynamic culture method. It would be interesting to investigate the technique involved in dynamic culture method more carefully to produce reliable data where it could be compared with the static method to give better understanding of the environment cells require to grow in artificial ECM-like structure and culture media. Since, within the body the cells are continuously under the force by blood flow in 3D environment, it would be useful to derive cell culture growth better in dynamic condition with enhanced technique. It is strongly recommended to carry out further research in this area to conclude spinner flask methods effect on 3T3-fibroblast cells with more reliable data. Evaluation The practical session assessed my learning in the techniques and concepts involved in tissue engineering. The demonstration on different techniques to prepare scaffolds assessed my understanding better and was helpful to apply same in this practical session by evaluating the different parameters that can be influenced by the scaffold design alone. As earlier discussed troubleshoot, implementing the technique given in protocol helped to produce the good replicates and contamination free-blanks and controls. While working in the hood with the partner, things were discussed prior to carrying out the experiment and working space was kept ready which helped in managing the use of same equipments, solution and incubation time effectively to avoid any source of contamination. Also, the exchange of results and data between several groups also led to the exchange of ideas and different cause for their results. However, the exact reason for spinner flask method to not work out is still not cle ar as all the groups got same reading where cells were present onto the scaffolds during alamar blue assay on day1 and day 7 but eventually lost when subsequent assays were done for same day. Overall, the difference between the effects of two culture method was evaluated. Acknowledgement The efforts put in by the Paula Ellis is acknowledged was carryout the change of media and taking care for the samples throughout the practical session and also during weekends. Also, Dr. Felicity Rose for giving the guidance and helping with doubt regarding the techniques and protocol. The images and data taken from all other groups are acknowledged for sharing their data used in this report. The effort of the group member is also acknowledged for managing with the working protocol load effectively. Figures Figure1. 3T3 fibroblast cells in T180 flask (10X). The image shows morphology of 3T3 fibroblast prior the trypsin digest followed by static seeding. The image was taken using Nikon (Scale bar: 80ÃâÃ µm) Figure 2a. Alamar blue assay for all static (n=5) and for dynamic (n=4) culture methods on day1 and day 7. The graph shows fluorescence detected ÃâÃ ± SD for both the culture condition. The absorbance value of non-seeded scaffold (control, Ac) was subtracted from the absorbance value obtained for seeded scaffold (As) to optimise the calculated fluorescence i.e. As-Ac. This was done for all the static and dynamic culture methods data. The statistical analysis paired t-test was at 95% significance level was done using SPSS. The calculated data is provided in the supplementary data. Figure 2b. Alamar blue assay of static and dynamic condition on day 1 and day 7. The mean of all the values on day 1 and day 7 for static (n=5) as well as dynamic (n=4) was done. The graphs shows the mean of absorbance (O.D) ÃâÃ ± SD. The statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test and independent t-test at 95% significance level. DAY 1 DAY 7 Figure 3. Toludine blue assay. The toludine blue staining was performed on static culture condition on day 1 (a) and on day 7 (b). Similarly for dynamic culture condition on day 1 (c) and day 7 (d) was carried out. In (a) and (b) there is darker background staining but (c) shows proper stained 3T3 fibroblast cells. No cells staining can be detected in (d) (Scale bar: 100ÃâÃ µm). Figure 4a. Standard curve for all static condition using Hoechst 33258 DNA assay. The standard curve was plotted using the known concentration 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312 and 0 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã ¶ (blank) of 3T3 fibroblast cells against the absorbance obtained. The blank was subtracted from the test reading to standardise the graph. The graph was produced using MS-Excel, to obtain the linear regression and linear equation for each group to calculate the cell density in static culture condition. Figure 4b. Standard curve for only two dynamic condition using Hoechst 33258 DNA assay. The standard curve was plotted using the known concentration of 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312 and 0 x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã ¶ (blank) of 3T3 fibroblast cells against the absorbance obtained. The blank was subtracted from the test reading to standardise the graph. The graph was produced using MS-Excel, to obtain the linear regression and linear equation to calculate the cell density in dynamic culture condition on day 1 and day 7. Figure 4 c. Hoechst 33258 DNA assay was carried out on all static (n=5) and dynamic (n=2) culture condition on day 1 and day 7. The cell density was calculated using the standard curve for its own respective group. The graph shows cell density (x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã µ cells/ml) ÃâÃ ± SD for static and dynamic condition. The calculation was performed on excel-sheet and statistical analysis of paired t-test was done using SPSS. Figure 4 d. Hoechst 33258 DNA assay. The unknown cell density calculated from standard curve was averaged (mean) for static (n=5) and dynamic (n=2) culture methods. The graph shows cell density (x 10Ã ¢Ã Ã µ cells/ml) ÃâÃ ± SD for static and dynamic condition. The calculation was performed on excel-sheet and statistical analysis of paired t-test and independent t-test was done were appropriate using SPSS. Figure 5. Western blot analysis of 3T3 fibroblast cell from static and dynamic on day 1 and day 7. The expression of ÃÅ½Ã ²-actin in both culture methods are analysed using the rainbow marker and compared with the actual pellet of 3T3 fibroblast to cells extracted from two different culture methods on different days.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The Effects Of Television On Society There is probably no greater influence on society than the television. It has become arguably the greatest invention of the past century. With it, we have witnessed countless historical events: Inaugurations of presidents; manÃ¢â¬â¢s first steps on the moon; the assignation of John F. Kennedy; even disasters as they happen. Americans watch TV in the morning to receive the daily news. They eat watching it. They watch it before they go to bed. But as television has saturated our lives, has it always resulted toward our betterment or has it possibly led to the deprivation of American society? Although there are many benefits of television, American society has most assuredly been adversely affected by it. Since the birth of television, crime has skyrocketed. Many years ago, problems in school were chewing gum and running in the halls. Now, students fear for their lives as our schools have turned into war zones, with school shootings becoming a national problem. Many attribute this problem to the violence children watch on television. Children have become desensitized concerning the value of human life by the many murders and violence viewed on the screen. Television has led to the moral decline in our nation like no other device in history. With the coming of cable and satellite television, Americans now have scores of channels to watch with very little educational value. Many children sit for hours in front of the television, and could ...
How to Unload Your Unwanted Collectibles via the Internet Trying to rid yourself of that box of old comics? Sick of all the CDs cluttering up your shelf space? While secondhand stores will do for some people, finding one that'll give you a good deal is next to impossible. If you need to unload what your particular hobby produces, whether it be rare books, old records, or baseball cards, the Internet provides the best opportunity for you to reach your market. Granted, selling a large volume of material yourself isn't easy: I discovered this the hard way when I first put my large collection of old CDs up for sale. But with the right preparations, running an e-sale is profitable, fun, and can provide you with contacts that prove useful for future sales. Step 1: The Sale Setup Your first concern should be cataloguing your collection. Make a note of each item you want to sell, as well as the price. It'd be a good idea to visit a shop that specializes in selling the collectible secondhand, such as a used bookstore or music store. Since buyers on the Internet usually expect to find a deal better than they could get otherwise, setting the item price slightly (around %10 or so) lower than a thrift shop will prevent them from clicking past you. Find a notebook, one that pages won't rip out of; this is your sale ledger. Keeping a tangible record of each item, price, buyer, buyer's mailing address, and shipping number in your ledger will prevent mistakes before they start. Believe me, dealing with an irate customer who claims you've mailed her the wrong CDs is much easier when you can prove the opposite. Finding an appropriate forum for your advertisement is probably the most important part of your setup. Usenet, a distributed bulletin board system that most Internet service providers and academic institutions make available to their users, is your best bet for reaching potential buyers. Usenet is divided into several hierarchies, or groups of bulletin boards (known individually as Blogs) that feature similar topics of discussion. For example, the alt.marketplace hierarchy contains the alt.marketplace, alt.marketplace.books, alt.marketplace.cassettes, and alt.marketplace.videotapes Blogs. However, when staging your sale you must choose the appropriate Blog. Posting daily sale updates to an off-topic Blog can get you flamed, mailbombed, or worse. Research your options thoroughly and well; read the news.answers Blog or set your web browser's URL to ftp://rtfm. How to Unload Your Unwanted Collectibles via the Internet :: Process Essays How to Unload Your Unwanted Collectibles via the Internet Trying to rid yourself of that box of old comics? Sick of all the CDs cluttering up your shelf space? While secondhand stores will do for some people, finding one that'll give you a good deal is next to impossible. If you need to unload what your particular hobby produces, whether it be rare books, old records, or baseball cards, the Internet provides the best opportunity for you to reach your market. Granted, selling a large volume of material yourself isn't easy: I discovered this the hard way when I first put my large collection of old CDs up for sale. But with the right preparations, running an e-sale is profitable, fun, and can provide you with contacts that prove useful for future sales. Step 1: The Sale Setup Your first concern should be cataloguing your collection. Make a note of each item you want to sell, as well as the price. It'd be a good idea to visit a shop that specializes in selling the collectible secondhand, such as a used bookstore or music store. Since buyers on the Internet usually expect to find a deal better than they could get otherwise, setting the item price slightly (around %10 or so) lower than a thrift shop will prevent them from clicking past you. Find a notebook, one that pages won't rip out of; this is your sale ledger. Keeping a tangible record of each item, price, buyer, buyer's mailing address, and shipping number in your ledger will prevent mistakes before they start. Believe me, dealing with an irate customer who claims you've mailed her the wrong CDs is much easier when you can prove the opposite. Finding an appropriate forum for your advertisement is probably the most important part of your setup. Usenet, a distributed bulletin board system that most Internet service providers and academic institutions make available to their users, is your best bet for reaching potential buyers. Usenet is divided into several hierarchies, or groups of bulletin boards (known individually as Blogs) that feature similar topics of discussion. For example, the alt.marketplace hierarchy contains the alt.marketplace, alt.marketplace.books, alt.marketplace.cassettes, and alt.marketplace.videotapes Blogs. However, when staging your sale you must choose the appropriate Blog. Posting daily sale updates to an off-topic Blog can get you flamed, mailbombed, or worse. Research your options thoroughly and well; read the news.answers Blog or set your web browser's URL to ftp://rtfm.
Friday, July 19, 2019
This paper discusses Adam Smith's and David Ricardo's view on the labor theory of value. It includes a discussion of the validity of the arguments they present in relation to social and Economic contexts. To the pursuance of this objective, the paper has explored five published articles available both in the internet and as hand copies. The labor theory of trade supposes that the value of commodity comprises of the labor used in its production. Goods that consume equal amount of time should have the same cost. Adam smith stipulates that the amount of labor used in production of a commodity determines its exchange value in primitive society; however, this change in an advanced society since the exchange value includes the profit for the owner of capital. Ricardo argued that the value of a commodity is proportional to the amount of manual and mechanized labor used to produce it. Labor theory of value stipulates that the amount of labor needed and used in production of such commodity determines the value of a commodity. Other factors of production do not determine the value of a commodity except those factors that have labor elements. Adam Smith and David Ricardo are associated with the labor theory of trade. The Value in this regards refers to the amount of labor required in production of commodities. The Adam Smith theory of value asserts that a commodity worth is equal to the amount of labor it commands in others. This includes value in trade and value in use. Value in use refers to the utility of a commodity while the value in trade refers to the price in exchange of another commodity. Smith established that labor is the real measure of the price of all commodities. Some opponents of the labor theory of ... ...th little fixed capital, short life capital or with raw materials that have high turnover. Adam smith argues that the amount of labor used in production of a commodity determines its exchange value in a primitive society; however, this changes in an advanced society where the exchange value now includes the profit for the owner of capital. RicardoÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is different from Smith's theory by excluding rent from the costs of production. Ricardo argues against Smith's theory because it only applies when wage is proportional to the amount of production equivalent to the amount of labor commanded and embodied. However, prices of commodities changes over time due to application of new production techniques; this leads to the increase of commodity prices over time. Ricardo points out that the value of a commodity is only equal to its cost of production in the long run.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Global and International Business Contexts Australian Wine Industry Report Word court: 2690 TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapters 1. Introduction 1. 1 Company background and brand concept 1. 2 Importance of Diversity and cultural different between European & Australia 1. 3 Develop a model and factors of buying behavior between European & Australia 2. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s National Diamond model 2. 1 Factor Conditions 2. Home Demand Conditions 2. 3 Related and Supporting Industries 2. 4 Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry 3. Strategic evaluation between European & Australia 3. 1. Measurable 3. 2. Accessible 3. 3. Substantial 3. 4. Actionable 4. SWOT analysis between European & Australia 4. 1. Product & packaging 4. 2. Price level 4. 3. Place (d istribution) 4. 4. Communication 4. 5. Opportunities and threats 4. 6 Economic conditions 4. 7 Political condition 4. 8 Socio-cultural conditions. 4. 9 Summary of survey Findings . Conclusion and financial recommendation 6. Reference 1. Introduction: After the discussion that related to managing globalization, diversity, globalization for business studies, the following can be the consolidation of my view that could be addressed. Globalization presents the free flow of technology and human resources across the world and national boundaries and spends of information technology, media as well as changing the world economic, training practices, competitive business environment. An increasing newcomers to the Australia workforce, globalization makes national culture strategic more complete, and need to be managed that came from populations that have been under-served in the past because of racial, ethnic, gender, or cultural differences. Social trends in Australia indicate that today's minority groups demand respect and equal treatment in mainstream institutions. I have indicated that business in the world organization, which can adjust their business strategies in our company for the changing demographic trend in Australia, should be successful firms in the future with increasing globalization. When firms in the world are seeking for the adjustable capability, as well as great globalization practice and training practice skills of HRM, they may look for the concept Ã¢â¬âmanaging diversity, culture, globalization, investment skills which is brought by Kandola and Fullerton (1998). In practicing managing diversity, spending aspects of HRM organizations strategic and investment are not using the traditional ones anymore. They should be cooperating with others such as sex, balancing of the global trends in human resource management, challenges arising from globalization, human resources management practice in the 21st century, to create organizational more effectiveness in wine industrialized. In our organization, it must manage and train this increasingly diverse workforce. HRM includes organization behavior activities are successful across cultures will depend on the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities to understand the value on practice human resource management such as motivation, job satisfaction, the important of work. It also depends on working effectively with other people. They also learn by understanding and appreciating differences in values in different national borders. Individuals and globalization tend to develop cross-cultural communication skills and stronger leadership abilities in diverse situations. Thus, it is also promoted to achieve the organization goals. In general, l agree with Kandola (1995) summarize that similar demographic changes in Australia. Globalization requires attention to more than conducting business across national borders but also entails expending competition for almost every type of organization presenting management with the diverse cultural settings (Edwards, 2006) The change is related to the workforce such as sex, ethnic minorities, and age thinking global, decentralization, planned, differentiation, change, delegation, competition. Therefore, demographic and globalization trends have created to expand the labor power and increased international of markets. He points out that, all around the worldÃ¢â¬Ës organizations will have to deal with managing diversity globalization not just in their countries. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce has highly concern over how cooperation can best manage their human resources such as motivation, training in increasing diversity environment. Therefore, this paper is direct toward what is the different between equal opportunities and managing Diversity, what is globalizationÃ¢â¬â¢s consequence for industries, HRM in internationalÃ¢â¬â¢s values and organization behavior. Besides, it reflects that how it can link to change between European and australia. This paper not only direct toward how an organization can expand its international business opportunity and globalization, but also get the analysis how an company create new environment to richer solute their problem which with the advent of globalization between European and Australia. 1. 1 Company background and brand concept Chateau Lafite, On 8 August 1868, which was under public sale as part of the Ignace-Joseph Vanlerberghe succession Chateau Lafite Rothschild for the preceding period. Just 3 months after the purchase, Baron James passed away, and Lafite became the joint property of his three sons: Alphonse, Gustave and Edmond. The estate then included 74 hectares of vineyards Nowadays, the company believes that Australia is the important market target and wants to expend their market share. 1. 2 Importance of Diversity and cultural different between European and Australia While Chateau Lafite adds diversity and facing cultural different in their market when it want to expand to Australia, they will found the skills and potential of their products and employees. Managing diversity and cultural different is said to contribute to organizational success (Gardenswartz & Rowe, 1998). It is also contended that it enables the best talent to be retained clients (Ross & Schneider, 1992) and enables more creativity to giving our fresh clients (McNerney, 1994). In addition it is suggested that a managing diversity and cultural different approach ensures business survival through resilience and flexibility (Gardenswartz & Rowe, 1998), reducing costs and increasing profit (Kandola, 1995) and improving customer service and sales to fresh clients (Kandola, 1995). Some benefits models that are associated with a managing diversity and different cultural approach, such as increased morale of our customers, having a competitive edge are difficult to prove (Kandola & Fullerton, 1994). Moreover, the emphasis placed on the role of line managers, and the practicability of such responsibility has been questioned (McDougall, 1998). In addition, the potential disparity between espoused organizational rhetoric on managing diversity and different cultural and the reality of organizational practices in key marketing segmentations areas (McKay & Maxwell, 1998) has been highlighted. Anderson and Metcalf (2003) examined Ã¢â¬Ëthe evidence and analyzed a range of academic studies on the business benefits of diversity and different cultural and their conclusions indicate that narrow studies on the business benefits definition, organizational goal and operational contexts make it difficult to draw reliable conclusion from these studiesÃ¢â¬â¢. The point to the complexity of the evidence of business enefits, contending that there are many types of diversity- social category: age, race, and gender, and argue that more satisfaction products are needed to identify causal links between the management of diversity and the outcomes for the profit of the Chateau Lafite. The external business environment is changing and organizations need to maximize the contribution of market target clients of Chateau Lafite in the product lines to retain competitive advantage. Customer focus In general, customer focus is about age-neutral polices at Aberdeen City Council, it encouraged a pplication from all age groups, dive positive feeling to customers. Chateau Lafite extend the customers base because it provided employment opportunities for more that 100 disabled people for training and improving store access. Business process improvements It is business process improvements. Chateau Lafite changed their approach to retain old clients, they can produce flexible product such as party box, they can have support clients awareness and increased development product-lines opportunity, resulting in an increase in the over 40s who choose to remain. Innovation and learning It is innovation and learning. It is innovation and learning. BP implemented a Mutual Mentoring Programme which paired senior executive with junior executives who are different to them. Murray(2004) explained: the pairings are designed to foster understanding between people of different gender and backgrounds so, she goes on to state that BP reports that Ã¢â¬Ëit has proved motivating for both junior and senior staff but the sharing is improved communications and decision asking. Ã¢â¬â¢ Those give the many difficulties develop of business case for diversity, it could be the clanked scorecard framework may be the way to move the debate forward. 1. Develop a model and factors of buying behavior between European and Australia One form of factors is the division between market and business marketing. Chateau Lafite can be grouped in many ways based on geographic factors which are countries, regions, cities; Behavioral factors which are purchase occasions, benefits market share. Chateau Lafite using Market segmentation may therefore be defined as the process of dividing of a market into distinct and increasingly homogeneous subgroups of customers in the several zones, where any subgroup can be selected as a target market to be met with a distinct marketing mix. Chateau Lafite can use Market segmentation based on the recognition that every market has potential buyers in china with different needs and different buying behavior. It may be grouped into segment and a different marketing approach will be taken by an organization for each market segment In business market, no one will satisfy all customers of theirs want and needs and taste. Each segment of the market offers a somewhat different opportunity. So, the marketers is need to attend to the needs of different clients of different market segment is in a better position to spot and compare the marketing opportunities. Chateau LafiteÃ¢â¬Ës market consists of widely different groups of consumers, but each group consists of people or organizations with common needs. 2. Segmentation buyer The total cost has several ways to segment a market. Firm Chateau Lafite has to think different segmentation variables, alone or combine. The major segment ways are geographic the locations, demographic, psychographic, and behavioral variables. Firstly, the locations geographic segmentation means that the market was divided into different geographical units for example, nations, states, cities, neighborhood, and regions. Chateau Lafite may make decision to operate in one or more geographical areas. They also need to operate in all areas and pay attention to culture, needs, wants, demands of the different geographical. In world region, Chateau Lafite has always made excellent winemaking and savoir-vivre an integral part of their legacy. Several generations of exceptional individuals have, over the centuries, worked toward a high principle: discovering soils with strong potential, and then producing the finest product possible. Secondly, psychographic segmentation which divides buyers into different based, such as social class, lifestyle, or personality characteristics. Marketer need to often segment their markets by customer lifestyles. Secondly, psychographic segmentation which divides buyers into different based, such as social class, lifestyle, or personality characteristics. Marketer need to often segment their markets by customer lifestyles. Social class. Company analysis of customers into socio-economic grouping. These grouping appear to provide reliable indicators of different consumer attitudes and needs for wide range of production. Life styles. Differences in personality, activities, interest, and opinions may be condensed. Company will be dividing the lifestyle dimensions into four parts. Lifestyle dimensions activitiesinterestopinionsdemographics workfamilythemselvesage entertainmentrecreationeconomicFamily size Social eventscommunitybusinessoccupation Personality, this includes the usage rate of the product by the buyers, whether purchase the service will be on impulse, customer loyalty, the sensitivity of the consumer to marketing mix factors, price, quality, sales promotion. Skin Food always has much promotion on showroom. Chateau LafiteÃ¢â¬â¢s innovative value-added services and marketing strategies have become the favorites of the young and young at heart. Besides, behavioral segmentation meant that it divides buyers into group based on their knowledge, attitudes, uses, or responses. This includes the usage rate of the product by the buyers, whether purchase the service will be on impulse, customer loyalty, the sensitivity of the consumer to marketing mix factors, price, quality, sales promotion. Occasion. Customers can be group when they want to purchased the product, they can get the product near themselves. So, Chateau LafiteÃ¢â¬â¢s firm needs to have regular occasion. Benefit. Benefit segmentation need to find the major benefits people look for in the product class, those people look for each benefit, and the major brand that deliver each benefit. So, Chateau LafiteÃ¢â¬â¢s product is selling the economic price fee of the makeup. Their product has good quality. In good service after the buyer buy it. They have personal customer service department. Is the customer has problems, there is a website and have customer service to help the consumers. Loyalty. A market also cab be segment by consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty. By studying loyal buyer, we need to know the buyerÃ¢â¬Ës interest, needs, behavior. So, Chateau LafiteÃ¢â¬â¢s product promotes the size are light-weight and to help to attract tourists Advertising strategy for Chateau Lafite Advertising and direct marketing are the two elements of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s promotional mix with which consumers are most familiar. Advertising consists of messages paid for by an identified sponsor and transmitted through a mass-communication medium such as television, radio, or newspapers. Direct marketing is defined by the Direct Marketing Association as distributing promotional materials directly to a consumer or business recipient for the purpose of generating (1) a response in the form of an order, (2) a request for further information, or (3) a visit to a store or other place of business for purchase of a specific product or service. All forms of advertising and direct marketing have three objectives: to create product awareness, to create and maintain the image of a product, and to stimulate consumer demand. Advertising and direct marketing are also the promotional approaches that best reach mass audiences quickly at a relatively low per-person cost. But, to be effective, your messages must be persuasive, stand out from the competitionÃ¢â¬â¢s, and motivate your target audienceÃ¢â¬âa lofty goal considering that the average china resident is exposed to roughly 250 ads every day. Sales promotion for Chateau Lafite It includes a wide range of events and activities designed to stimulate immediate interest in and encourage the purchase of your product or service, is the fourth element of the promotional mix. The impact of sales promotion activities is often short term; thus, sales promotions are not as effective as advertising or personal selling in building long-term brand preference. Sales promotion consists of two basic categories: consumer promotion and trade promotion. We will use trade promotion Public relation strategy for Chateau Lafite Public relations encompasses all the non-sales communications that businesses have with their many stakeholdersÃ¢â¬âcommunities, investors, industry analysts, government agencies and officials, and the news media. Chateau Lafite rely on public relations to build a favorable corporate image and foster positive relations with these groups. Two standard public relations tools are the news release and the news conference. A news release is a short memo sent to the media covering topics that are of potential news interest; a video news release is a brief video clip sent to television stations. Companies use news releases to get favorable news coverage about themselves and their products. When a business has significant news to announce, it will often arrange a news conference. Both tools are used when the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s news is of widespread interest, when products need to be demonstrated, or when company officials want to be available to answer questions from the media. Personal selling strategy for Chateau Lafite Personal selling is the interpersonal aspect of the promotional mix. It involves person-to-person presentationÃ¢â¬âface-to-face, by phone, or by interactive media such as Web TVÃ¢â¬â¢s video conferencing or customized websitesÃ¢â¬âfor the purpose of making sales and building customer relationships. Many salespeople follow a carefully planned seven-step process from start to finish: 1. Prospecting. Finding and qualifying potential buyers of the product or service. 2. Preparing. Considering various options for approaching the prospect and preparing for the sales call. 3. Approaching. Contacting the prospect, getting his or her attention, and building interest in the product or service. 4. Presenting. Communicating a message that persuades a prospect to buy. 5. Handling objections. Countering the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s objections to purchasing a product or service with convincing claims. . Closing. Asking the prospect to buy the product. 7. Following up. Checking customer satisfaction following the sale and building goodwill. All the DBR teams: Humbleness in learning: it takes time to make the soil excellent. Fine wines are the fruit of years of toil High quality standards: the meticulous respect of quality by using best practices, and the constant desire to improve these practices. Direc t marketing strategy for Chateau Lafite The most popular direct marketing vehicles are direct mail, targeted e-mail, telemarketing, and the Internet. Ã¢â¬ ¢Direct mail. This form of direct marketing includes catalogs, brochures, videotapes, disks, and other promotional materials delivered through the china Postal Service and private carriers. Ã¢â¬ ¢Target e-mail. Increasingly, companies are sending e-mails to highly targeted lists of prospects. This technique works much the same way as offline direct marketing campaigns. Ã¢â¬ ¢Telemarketing. Telemarketing is a low-cost way to efficiently reach many people. But because it can be intrusive, several states have enacted legislation to restrict telemarketing activities. 2. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s National Diamond model 2. 1 Factor Conditions These factors can be grouped into labor power, cost of labor, commitment, qualification level, knowledge resources, capital resources, and infrastructure. They also include factors like quality of research on universities, deregulation of labor markets, or liquidity of national stock markets. These national factors often provide main advantages, which are subsequently built upon. Each country has its own particular set of factor conditions; hence, in European will develop those industries for which the particular set of factor conditions is optimal. Porter points out that these factors are not necessarily nature-made or inherited. They may develop and change. Political initiatives, technological progress or socio-cultural changes, for instance, Technology replacement, technology change rapidly in recent years, Chateau Lafite must need to be constantly in touch with latest technology to help them provide best service possible. New challenge, European company can enter into market by cooperate with licensed company. Recently, it had developed a new brand, it is an important threat created in the market. 2. 2 Home Demand Conditions The factors are the state of home demand for products and services produced in European. Home demand conditions influence the shaping of particular factor conditions. They have impact on the pace and direction of innovation and product development. According to Porter, home demand is determined by three major characteristics: their mixture (the mix of customers needs and wants), their scope and growth rate, and the mechanisms that transmit domestic preferences to foreign markets. Porter states that a European can achieve national advantages in an industry or market segment, if home demand provides clearer and earlier signals of demand trends to domestic suppliers than to foreign competitors. Foreign customer, the amount of business visitor and tourist are continues increase in European. They need service to take local or international call, if they use service for each contract, it is too expensive. Therefore, Chateau Lafite can provide them a local service package. 2. 3 Related and Supporting Industries These factors competitive is supplying industries and supporting industries. One internationally successful industry may lead to advantages in other related or supporting industries. Competitive supplying industries will reinforce innovation and internationalization in industries at later stages in the value system. Service, Chateau Lafite identify customers introduction flexible service plan and various service to meet customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs Customers also can create their own wine. A typical example is the shoe and leather industry in Italy. Italy is not only successful with shoes and leather, but with related products and services such as leather working machinery, design, etc. 2. 4 Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry The conditions in European that determine how Chateau Lafite are established, are organized and are managed, and that determine the characteristics of domestic competition Here, cultural aspects play an important role. In different nations, factors like management structures, working morale, or interactions between companies are shaped differently. This will provide advantages and disadvantages for particular industries. Chateau Lafite Ã¢â¬Ëstrategy, the marketing strategy restrict to expand customer group above 35 year old, because it will create duplicate target under group, because Chateau Lafite has another brand focus on marketing segment above 33 years regarding business person. Undifferentiated service, Chateau Lafite provide service similar to other competitors in the market in Australia. Therefore, it is difficult to attract more customers change their service. It fails to delivery addition value and satisfaction to the customers. 3. Strategic evaluation between European & Australia Although it is true that marketing effectiveness is a vital component of organizational Chateau Lafite effectiveness, it is not easy to measure, especially as marketing assets are hard to measure and value and accountants are suspicious of them. There are various ways to segment of this total, but not all segmentation has great effective. There are five approaches to quantifying marketing effectiveness and its impact on corporate performance. . 1 Measurable It is based on the size, purchasing power, and profiles of the segments. Those can be measured. Many segmentation variables are very difficult to measure. In demographics segmentation, the size variable, Chateau Lafite firm always force on the 1st September at lÃ¢â¬â¢Evangile, 5th at Duhart, 8th at Lafite, sweet whites from the 17th and after a superb month of September, harvesting ended on 1st October. The 2003 harvest will go down in history! The wines from this atypical vintage stand out with their richness, depth and smoothness with very rounded tannins. So this segmentation can helpful to know the great purchasing power here. In behavior segmentation, also show that student have the great purchasing power. 3. 2 Accessible Market segments can be effectively reached and served. In the segmentation find that, women who have children users are tourists and local people. Therefore, the firm will plan more showrooms in the four areas. The market segments can be effectively reached and served. The turn of the century went over smoothly, given the fine vintages that are currently aging in DBR cellars. Among them, 1990, 1995, 1996, and 2000 and some of the others will mature into renowned vintages In the segmentation find that heavy users of the attractive are younger, student, business women/ men. Therefore, the firm will plan more student promotion, customerÃ¢â¬â¢s service, and e-mail on the phone to clients for new products, seeing the artiste to using their product. 3. 3 Substantial Market segments are big or profit enough to serve. A segment should be big or profit enough to serve. A segment should be the largest homogenous group worth pursuing with a marketing program. It would not pay, for the product functions can see the other people, especially the women travel to the other places. 3. 4 Actionable Effective program can be designed for attracting and serving the segment. For example, Chateau Lafite makes use of the effective program can be designed for attracting and serving the segment. For example, Chateau Lafite can make use of artiste at china to attract younger users and business women to use The firm also makes many plan. So this can attract the segment as DBR (Lafite) has decided to develop a quality vineyard in China with the CITIC group. Out of the many regions visited, the peninsula of Penglai, province of Shandong, proved to be the most promising area for producing a great wine, in terms of its climatic and geological conditions. This region also possesses an ancient tradition in viticulture. The top quality soils enable planting of just over 25 hectares of vines on the slopes 4. 4P and SWOT analysis between European & Australia 4P stands for promotion, place (distribution), product & packaging, price. 4P and others environment analysis is a management tool which you can use in a wide variety of situations. 4. 1 Promotion We need to consider the success or failure of advertising campaigns. Is the organization using advertising to good effect? Did the product have successfully communicated to the potential customers? At market share and market size, is the organization in a strong or weak position? Has the company achieved a superior customer service? Product, we need to consider the sales by market, area, product group. Profit margin and overall profit contribution, are profits for each product good or bad? Does the company place sufficient emphasis on the quality of its work, both in terns of the goods it sells progress? At age and future life of product, did the company have a good balance between old and new product, and rising, mature? Raw material, we need to consider is there a single supplier or can supplies be obtained from numerous sources? No major new product has been derived from Chateau Lafite for two years. It will become too dependent on acquisition additions to product range. There is also little control over R budget. There are can not be low productivity on all lines at one plant. There are new development firm could threaten ability to compete. 4. 2 Price We need to consider the short-term and long term funds or cash flow. Is the organization in a strong or weak position for future cash flow? Does the company have returns on investment? Rapid changes have occurred in economic. We are living in the place china where continuous have increasing price change. Such as, the human genetic code has been cracked. Company also can sell the high price product. 4. 3Place (Distribution) We need to consider the service standards, what are delivery lead times, and how do they compare? We need to consider are research and development relevant to future marketing plan? Are the costs of research and development spending too much? How good for this research and development? In European, at 2008, there are the economic inflation. The economic environment will affect the general business cycle. Interest rate, inflation, changes in the income and stock market. Many things if they all decline, this will also affect the business cycle. When customersÃ¢â¬â¢ income fall, they will postpone purchasing anything that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a necessity. At company, when the economic downturn in one place, our manager try to think many ways to attract more customers to buy things. It may be good service, good service for after buying the product. It also is to turn the price down. We will buy little from the store. 4. 4Communication (business management) Organization structure, is the properly suited to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s needs? Are the communication links adequate? This is the values, customers, trend, taste preferences. Many managers must adapt their practices to changing expectations of the society in which they operate. As societal values, customers, and taste change, managers also must change. Such as, workers began seek more balance in their lives, organization have had to adjust by offering family leave policies, more flexible work hours. In each trend, it may have a potential constraint to managersÃ¢â¬â¢ decision and action. 4. 5Opportunities and threats An external environment is required to identify profit-making opportunities which can be exploited by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and also to anticipate environmental threats against which the company must project itself. For opportunities it is necessary to decide such as what opportunities exist in the business environment? What is their inherent profit-making potential? Is it given the internal strengths or weaknesses of the organization? Is it capable of exploiting the worthwhile opportunities? The opportunity may involve product development, market development, market penetration. Opportunities and threats may relate to SWOT items. At Economic, nowadays, general investment level, well market behavior for product, total high customer demands, so, there are many ways to have get profit. We need to consider more international level, world production, the volume of international trade, demand, recessions, import control, exchange rate. . 6Economic conditions Inflation part, in European, at 2008, there are the economic inflation. The economic environment will affect the general business cycle. Interest rate, inflation, changes in the income and stock market. Many things if they all decline, this will also affect the business cycle. When customersÃ¢â¬â¢ income fall, they will postpone purchasing anything that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a necessity. At company, when the economic downturn, our manager will try to think many ways to attract more customers to buy things. It may be good service, good service for after buying the product. It also is to turn the price down. We will buy little from the book store and piano company. 4. 7Political condition many local governments will affect what organizations can and cannot do. Some federal legislation has affect implications. Such as, AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s company designed to make job more accessible to people with disabilities. Firm spend a great deal of time and money to meet government regulations. However, the effect of these regulations is not just money. Legislation may also affect a company prospects. We need to consider the ban on certain product. At Company, we also affect by the regulation of the government. For example, the contract, MPF. This also is affect by the regulation. We need to give 5% to each of staff to have MPF. 4. 8 Sociocultural conditions. This is the values, customers, trend, taste preferences. Many managers must adapt their practices to changing expectations of the society in which they operate. As societal values, customers, and taste change, managers also must change. Such as, workers began seek more balance in their lives, organization have had to adjust by offering family leave policies, more flexible work hours. In each trend, it may have a potential constraint to managersÃ¢â¬â¢ decision and action. 4. 9 summary of finding This paper studies on the findings the meant of diversity and adds to the managing diversity in to debate to provide the information of adding managing diversity on an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits. This paper analysis indicates that in theory, managing diversity represents a positive progression of equality, in practice; globalizationÃ¢â¬â¢s is consequence for industries, HRM in internationalÃ¢â¬â¢s values and organization behavior. Besides, it reflects that how it can link to change between European and Australia. This paper not only direct toward how an organization can expand its international business opportunity and globalization, but also get the analysis how an company create new environment to richer solute their problem which with the advent of globalization between European and Australia. 5. Conclusion and financial recommendation Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concludes the following: The respondents who took part in this study are already mature in age, responsible and reliable. They are also aware of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s happening in the Chateau Lafite particularly to the strategies management (4 P and PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s National Diamond model) for their personnel and are deeply concerned about the improvement motivation and international marketing improvements practices. Majority of the respondents believes that although compensation technique has something to do in their motivation it is still very important to consider the Ã¢â¬Å"nature of workÃ¢â¬ variable. Most of the respondents accepted the fact that the levels of their performance in the job are highly related to compensation. This shows that respondents knew the importance of proper compensation to the progress of their organisation. For them long-term return should be the first thing to consider instead of short-term compensation. With respect to the overall perception of the respondents regarding job satisfaction and motivation impact on job performance, most of them responded agree. 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